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Project ExScal fielded a 1000+ node wireless sensor network and a 200+ node peer-to-peer ad hoc network of 802.11 devices in a 1.3km by 300m remote area in Florida, USA during December 2004. In comparison with previous deployments, the ExScal application is relatively complex. In this talk, I overview the key requirements of ExScal, a few elements of its hardware/software platform, networking protocol and application design, and some results of our experiments. ©2005 Microsoft Corporation. All...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Feng Zhao, Anish Arora
For centuries, the general view had been that science is neither good nor bad, that it merely supplies information ad that new information is always beneficial. Now we live in a world where the leaders of Africa nations prefer to let their citizens starve rather than import genetically modified grains, and where childhood vaccines, one of the most effective health measures in history has people marching against their use. In the best universities in the world the research labs are surrounded by...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kirsten Wiley, Michael Specter
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In line with the insight that “one size” of databases will not fit all application needs, the database community is currently exploring various alternatives to commodity, CPU-based system designs. One particular candidate in this trend are Field-programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), programmable logic chips that allow tailor-made hardware designs optimized for specific systems, applications, or even …
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The talk presents work of the Institute for System Programming on applications of formal methods into practical software engineering. It considres applications of model based testing to Linux Standard Base, Linux driver verification, test development for mathematical libraries, some works in compiler testing.
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The key to creating scalable, robust natural language processing (NLP) systems is to exploit correspondences between known and unknown linguistic structure. Natural language processing has experienced tremendous success over the past two decades, but our most successful systems are still limited to the domains and languages where we have large amounts of hand-annotated data. Unfortunately, …
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The purpose of the seminar is to describe the StarSs programming model, the status of the different implementations and why we consider that it provides a global solution to the challenges raised by future processor and system architectures. StarSs is a task-based programming model where the user annotates with directives an otherwise standard sequential code …
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Modern managed languages, such as Java and C#, derive many software engineering benefits from the use of virtual machines. While the performance penalty of VMs has received significant attention, the information penalty has not: extra layers of virtualization make program behavior (and misbehavior) much more difficult to understand. The garbage collector, for example, takes over the job of freeing objects, eliminating a large class of memory errors. As a result, however, programmers no longer...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Ben Zorn, Sam Guyer
In this talk, I will report on the results of the SCALE workshop that was held at the JHU Human Language Technology Center of Excellence. This summer I worked for 8 weeks alongside 18 other researchers on improving the quality of Urdu-English machine translation. Working with Urdu is different than working with Arabic and Chinese …
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There is almost a never-ending quest to push the capacity limit for wireless networks to support growing applications. Our approach to increasing the network capacity is to promote concurrent transmissions, from a single transmitter to two or more receivers. This involves applying information theoretic techniques, while taking into account dynamic traffic conditions and low level …
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A substantial amount of work today is accomplished through collaborative activities, which may be open-ended and opportunistic or structured and well defined, with participants with similar skills and knowledge or from different disciplines. Our group has been investigating, and developing tools to support, several different scenarios of collaborative work. On one end of the spectrum, …
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In this talk, I present Lahar, a warehousing system for a general class of imprecise, sequential data called Markovian streams. These imprecise streams are commonly used to model location sequences inferred from noisy sensors such as RFID/GPS, text inferred from spoken audio, etc. In the context of Lahar, I introduce algorithms for supporting sophisticated analytics …
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Commodity computer systems contain more and more processor cores and exhibit increasingly diverse architectural tradeoffs, including memory hierarchies, interconnects, instruction sets and variants, and IO configurations. Previous high-performance computing systems have scaled in specific cases, but the dynamic nature of modern client and server workloads, coupled with the impossibility of statically optimizing an OS for …
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Dennis Gannon – Welcome and Workshop Kickoff Ed Lazowska – The University of Washington eScience Institute
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In this talk, we will provide a brief overview of the research that we have conducted in the area of digital rights management (DRM) systems. This will include a discussion of DRM architectures, along with a consideration of how particular features and design decisions affect interoperability. Next we will consider DRM in a setting that …
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3:15 – 3:45 TBA Pret-a-Voter: overview and open probelms
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Program instructions uniquely identified by their program counters (PCs) provide a convenient and accurate means of recording the context of program execution and instruction-based prediction techniques have been widely used for performance optimizations at the architectural level. Operating systems, on the other hand, have not fully explored the benefits of instruction-based prediction for resource management. This research explores the potential benefits provided by instruction-based...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jeremy Elson, Chris Gniady
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Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) is a notoriously difficult model for crystal growth introduced in 1981 by Sander and Witten. We consider a variation on DLA in 1 dimension generated by a random walk with large jumps. The growth rate of the diameter of the N particle aggregate depends on the tail of the step distribution, and exhibits three phase transitions when the walk steps have 1, 2 or 3 finite moments. ©2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Oded Schramm, Omer Angel
I will present an algorithm which computes Hilbert modular forms on real quadratic fields. The computations exploit the Jacquet-Langlands correspondence to switch to definite quaternions algebras and are intimately related to the computations of the class numbers of the latter. We will illustrate our discussion with several examples. ©2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kristin Lauter, Lassina Dembele
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Chip Multiprocessors (CMPs) have emerged as the common choice for processor manufacturers to take advantage of CMOS scaling trends that lead to greater numbers of smaller transistors on a single chip. CMP architectures feature multiple simple cores that help mitigate wire delays and energy consumption issues facing complex monolithic designs. However, with the exception of server applications such as database programs, the majority of commonly used applications on desktop machines have yet to...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Richard Draves, Suleyman Sair
The factors that harm the speech recognition results for un-tethered users are the ambient noise and the reverberation. While we have pretty sophisticated noise suppression algorithms, the de-reverberation is still an unsolved problem due to the difficulties in estimation and keeping track of the changes in the room response model. Sound capturing with microphone arrays provides partial de-reverberation and ambient noise reduction due to the better directivity. This improves the speech...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Ivan Tashev, Daniel J. Allred
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Textual Entailment has been proposed recently as a generic framework for modeling semantic variability in many Natural Language Processing applications, such as Question Answering, Information Extraction, Information Retrieval and Document Summarization. The Textual Entailment relationship holds between two text fragments, termed text and hypothesis, if the truth of the hypothesis can be inferred from the text. In this talk, the Textual Entailment framework will be introduced. I'll then present...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Bill Dolan, Idan Szpektor
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A large percentage of recent security problems, such as Cross-site Scripting or SQL injection, is caused by string-based code injection vulnerabilities. Most of these vulnerabilities exist because of implicit code creation through string serialization. Based on an analysis of the vulnerability class’ underlying mechanisms, we propose a general approach to out?t modern programming languages with mandatory means for explicit and secure code generation which provide strict separation between...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Helen Wang, Martin Johns
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2:00 - 2:30 Olle Häggström (Chalmers) Percolation, mass transport and cluster indistinguishability 2:35 - 3:05 Yuval Peres (Microsoft) Connectivity Probability in Critical Percolation: An unpublished gem from Oded ©2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, David Wilson, Yuval Peres, Prasad Tetali,...
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Coloring a k -colorable graph using k colors ( k≥ 3 ) is a notoriously hard problem. Considering average case analysis allows for better results. In this work we consider the uniform distribution over k -colorable graphs with n vertices and exactly cn edges, c greater than some sufficiently large constant. We rigorously show that all proper k -colorings of most such graphs are clustered in one cluster, and agree on all but a small, though constant, number of vertices. We also show that some...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Uri Feige, Dan Vilenchik
Computer systems design is based on many commonly-held beliefs and heuristics, many of which have never been challenged: Thousands of server farm 'load balancing' policies do exactly that: they aim to balance the load among the servers. But is load balancing necessarily a good thing? Consider a choice between a single machine with speed s, and n identical machines with speed s/n. Which would you choose? Are you always right? Scheduling policies which favor 'short' jobs, like...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jennifer Chayes & Ken Church, Mor...
Location awareness is an important capability for mobile computing. Yet inexpensive, pervasive positioning—a requirement for wide-scale adoption of location-aware computing—has been elusive. Place Lab is designed to overcome the lack of ubiquity and high-cost in existing location sensing approaches. Place Lab is software allowing commodity laptops, PDAs and cell phones to estimate their position by listening for radio beacons such as 802.11 access points, GSM phone towers, and fixed...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, John Krumm and Patrick Baudisch, Jeffrey...
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The ultimate display will not show images. To drive the display of the future, we must abandon our traditional concepts of pixels, and of images as grids of coherent pixels, and of imagery as a sequence of images. So what is this ultimate display? One thing is obvious: the display of the future will have incredibly high resolution. A typical monitor today has 100 dpi—-far below a satisfactory printer. Several technologies offer the prospect of much higher resolutions; even today you can buy a...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Mike Sinclair, Benjamin Watson, David...
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Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Michael Gamon, William Lewis, Manuela...
Start with n particles at each of k points in the integer lattice Z d , and let each particle perform simple random walk until it reaches an unoccupied site. The law of the resulting random set of occupied sites does not depend on the order in which the walks are performed. We prove that if the distances between the starting points are scaled by n 1/d , the set of occupied sites has a deterministic scaling limit. In two dimensions, the boundary of the limiting shape is an algebraic curve of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jennifer Chayes, Lionel Levine
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Systems code is prone to termination errors. Inferring preconditions excluding such errors is both tedious and hard.This is true in particular for heap manipulating functions.Both, a precondition and the invariants used to prove termination must express what heap locations or regions can be aliased, inter-reachable, separated or shared. Shape analysis to compute such heap assertions is notoriously expensive. Our new termination analysis with precondition inference calls shape analysis on...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Shaz Qadeer, Andreas Podelski
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Key words: Statistical Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning, Text Mining, and Semantic Integration Most information in the world exists in the format of text, such as news articles and web pages. Different lines of research have been conducted to allow a computer system to pinpoint knowledge from text with different precision, including information retrieval, information, and question answering. The goal of these tasks is to discover, understand and access knowledge about real-world...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Eric Brill, Xin Li
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Most models for online advertising assume that each ad has an inherent clickthrough-rate/conversion-rate, regardless of other ads served in the same session. This ignores an important externality effect: as the advertising audience has a limited attention span, a high-quality ad on a page can detract attention from other ads on the same page. In this talk, we will describe two models for online advertising that take this effect into account, and discuss the computational complexity of the...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kamal Jain, Mohammad Mahdian
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Research in summarization has been handicapped by a lack of agreement on how to generate a standard summary (which can serve as a reference in the evaluation of alternative approaches). Part of the problem rests in disagreement between different humans on what constitutes a single good summary. We propose an alternate approach that dispenses with the need for a global reference and instead focuses on the ability of a summarizer to rapidly learn how an individual human summarizes material....
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Alex Acero, Alexander Rudnicky
Users share an increasing marginal cost technology. A cost sharing method specifies non negative and non transferable cost shares covering costs. We look at the worst surplus gain (relative to the efficient surplus) in any Nash equilibrium when preferences are convex and quasi-linear, and otherwise arbitrary. We compare four popular methods: average cost pricing, serial cost sharing, marginal cost pricing and incremental cost sharing. No matter what the (convex) cost function, the average cost...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Nicole Immorlica, Herve Moulin
In current practice, only rarely precise and reliable documentation of a system's behaviour is produced during its development. Revisions and last minute changes invalidate design sketches, and while systems are updated in the maintenance cycle, often their implementation documentation is not. Regular extrapolation aims at providing descriptions of systems or system aspects a posteriori in a largely automatic way. These descriptions come in the form of models which offer the possibility of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jakob Rehof, Bernhard Steffen
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Our students have changed; our classroom is the same for more than 100 years. As ICT researchers, we have the tools to transform this. The aim of this talk is to present how technology innovations have made possible to modify the classroom experience. We analyze and show applications of Educational Video Games for the Nintendo Game Boy, collaborative work assisted by portable devices with wireless networks, phones in the classroom, multiple mouse applications, and augmented reality with...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Lee Dirks, Miguel Nussbaum
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Concurrent programs are notoriously difficult to write and debug, a problem that is becoming acute as concurrency becomes more common. A fundamental and particularly insidious concurrency bug is a race: a condition in which a pair of threads simultaneously access the same memory location and at least one of those accesses is a write. Despite thirty years of research on race detection, today's concurrent programs are riddled with races. This talk presents a novel approach to detecting races in...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Tom Ball, Mayur Naik
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Azure Academic Pilot – Krishna Kumar, Microsoft
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COMPANIONS is an EU project that aims to change the way we think about the relationships of people to computers and the Internet by developing a virtual conversational 'Companion'. This is intended as an agent or 'presence' that stays with a user for long periods of time, developing a relationship and 'knowing' its owners preferences and wishes. The Companion communicates with the user primarily through speech. This paper describes the functionality and system modules of the Senior Companion,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Tim Paek, Yorick Wilks
The era of increasing single-threaded application performance is long over. Application code bases must adapt to utilize multicore chips, or be forever stuck with circa 2004 performance levels. The difficulty of writing multithreaded code is well accepted: if it was easy, we would have parallelized applications long ago. One of the main challenges with writing concurrent software is debugging. Errors are often subtle, difficult to reason about and hard to reproduce. In this talk I will describe...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jim Larus, Mark Oskin
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Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Gino Sorcinelli
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The Mars Exploration Rovers are searching for answers about the history of water on Mars. Finding those answers will help scientists determine if life ever was on the Red Planet. The rovers, which landed on Mars last year, have driven over more than three miles of Martian terrain, including areas never before seen on Earth. Come see picture from Mars and learn how these incredible machines were developed, as well as what else is in store for future Mars missions. ©2005 Microsoft Corporation....
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Steven Shafer, Mark Maimone
This talk will describe the work in image, video and multimedia processing carried out at Multimedia Research Lab at Ryerson University. Our work focuses on four topics: human computer interaction, streaming media, indexing and retrieval, and bioinformatics. I will first give a brief introduction on these topics. I will then present two recent projects: Bimodal human emotion recognition. We investaged language/speaker independent human emotion recognition using audiovisual cues and different...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Yong Rui, Ling Guan
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As modern computer systems grow in both size and complexity, so has the need for automatic analysis and computer-aided administration of these systems. With recent booms in computing power and efficient algorithms, statistical machine learning methods have become increasingly practical for dealing with the deluge of data generated by these systems. In this talk, I present statistical diagnostic platforms for several large-scale systems, focusing on the problem of selecting fault-related...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Yi-Min Wang, Alice Zheng
My research focuses on the problems of reconstruction and visualization of three-dimensional objects from images or video streams. I envision the an end-to-end light portal that can capture and 're-enact' real-world objects or events in a different time or space, as if they were being 'tele-ported' right in front of the viewers. While a full realization of such a light-portal is many years away, I will present some progresses we have made during the last few years. More specifically, I will...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Zhengyou Zhang, Ruigang Yang
Does place matter for digital information? If so, how? Research points to the importance of 'place-like' senses of direction, context, connection and control when managing digital information. Support for place in the Personal Project Planner prototype begins with the idea that relevant information can be located with reference to a simple planning document. This document works as a light-weight, editable overlay to existing applications and the stores of information managed by these...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Mary Czerwinski, William Jones
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In the framework of model based multidimensional signal processing this lecture deals with a derivation of new parametric models. In the first part we will provide with the limitations of the AR models in the case of signals with periodicities and propose the so called sine-AR models exercised in various real signals [1].In the second part we provide the limitations of the AR models in the 2-D case, an extension of the Schur-Cohn stability test to the 2-D case [7][8][9] and propose new models...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jin Li, Mohamed Najim
Recent advances in graphics processing units (GPUs) have resulted in massively parallel hardware that is easily programmable and widely available in commodity desktop computer systems. GPUs typically use single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) pipelines to achieve high performance with minimal area overhead. Scalar threads are grouped together into SIMD batches (sometimes referred to as warps). While SIMD is ideally suited for simple programs, recent GPUs include control flow instructions in...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Onur Mutlu, Tor Aamodt
The ability to prove equivalence of successive, closely-related versions of a program can be useful for maintaining backward compatibility. This problem has the potential of being easier in practice than functional verification for at least two reasons: First, it circumvents the problem of specifying what the program should do; Second, in many cases it is computationally easier, because it offers various opportunities for abstraction and decomposition that are only relevant in this context. I...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Shuvendu Lahiri, Ofer Strichman
People like to look at images and interact with them. We will show how scanned beam technology can either display, or capture images, and that this makes it unique when compared to other display technologies such as LCD,PDP,OLED, or projection. Scanned beam is what is used in laser printers in one dimensional form. We have replaced the polygon by a MEMs device as small as a few millimeters in size that scans in two dimensions at video rates. This small size and simplicity enables a range of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Steven Bathiche and Andy Wilson, John R....
Over the last decade, design of enterprise wireless networks have gone through a radical shift. While initial wisdom pointed to a completely distributed design, increasingly more and more functions are getting aggregated into a centralized architecture. In our recent work, we have focused on four interesting aspects of designing robust enterprise wireless networks: (i) a systems approach to mitigating some of the most challenging scenarios in these wireless environments, — hidden and exposed...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jin Li, Suman Banerjee
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It is well known that noise can be introduced into video during capturing, storage and transmission. It is especially bad in dark regions in the video where the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Such noise is typically visually disturbing and can cause serious problem to many video coding systems such as MPEG-1/2/4, and H.261/3/4. This is because many precious bits would need to be spent to encode this undesirable noise in the video. As MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.263 and H.264 are used widely in consumer...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jin Li, Oscar Au
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The most widely used concurrent software techniques, which are based on threads, monitors (or approximations to monitors), and semaphores, yield incomprehensible and untestable software. Bugs due to race conditions, timing unpredictability, and potential deadlocks can go undetected for a very long time. Unexpected interactions between even loosely coupled software components can destabilize systems. Yet increased parallelism in general-purpose computing (particularly multicore systems),...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Shaz Qadeer, Edward A. Lee
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This is the story of two people playing chess in a smoky café in 1916 in Zurich, Switzerland. The two people are Tristan Tzara, the founder of Dada, a radical art movement and V.I. Lenin, the architect of the Russian Revolution. And it’s the most important chess game ever played, because the world is never going to be the same when these guys get up from the table. Tzara goes on to change the look and meaning of the new century through poetry, art, paradox, absurdity, laughter, abolishing...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kirsten Wiley, Andre Codrescu
In this talk, we discuss the widespread use of Web search engines and its potential impact on the ecology of the Web. Recent studies show that a significant portion of Web accesses are referred by search engines. Furthermore, the Web-search market is increasingly dominated by a few key players. What are the implications of this heavy reliance of Web users on search engines in their pursuit of information? For example, given that search engines return currently “popular” pages at the top of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Marc Najork, Junghoo Cho
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One thing which will be explained is the evaluation of a determinant originally stated by Sylvester and rediscovered by Mark Kac. The determinant is tridiagonal with x on the diagonal, 1,2,...,N above the diagonal, and N,N-1,...,1 below the diagonal. The polynomials responsible for this evaluation are Krawtchouk, although Kac was unaware that orthogonal polynomials were behind this and Sylvester just stated the values of this determinant for N=1,2,3,4,5,6 and said that the obvious rule...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Henry Cohn, Richard Askey
The elements are what we, and everything around us, are made of. But how many elements has anyone actually seen in pure, uncombined form? Based on years of research and photography Gray has created the most complete and visually arresting representation available to the naked eye of every atom in the universe. Organized in order of appearance on the periodic table, each element is represented in a full color photograph, along with facts, figures and stories of the elements as well as data on...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kirsten Wiley, Theo Gray
'Secure Computation' has been a classic and central question in modern cryptography with a large set of potential applications.Mining large genomic databases, private scientific computation, and studying properties of shared networks are just a few examples.Unfortunately, the majority of the constructions in this area have not made their way into practice, primarily due to their inefficiency. In this talk, I first outline three different approaches toward designing more practical protocols, and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kristin Lauter, Payman Mohassel
Collaboration is an important part of nearly all work and educational settings. In practice, however, collaboration is rarely perfect; numerous problems arise, ranging from social loafing to coordination losses. In this talk, I show how a multidisciplinary approach can help in the design of collaborative technologies. For example, in designing IRC Français, I drew on the educational literature to develop a chat-style environment for foreign language learning. Once placed in the classroom,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Danyel Fisher, Jim Hudson
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Despite the best efforts of programmers, programs still ship with bugs. Many of these bugs manifest as anomalies the heap. This talk discusses two low-overhead synergistic techniques for discovering heap anomalies by exploiting the underlying runtime system. The first, dynamic object sampling, is a technique for selectively tagging objects with characteristics. Summarization graphs provide a compact representation of collecting heap characteristics. We show that these techniques can stand alone...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Bjarne Steensgaard, Maria Jump
Commodity computer systems contain more and more processor cores and exhibit increasingly diverse architectural tradeoffs, including memory hierarchies, interconnects, instruction sets and variants, and IO configurations. Previous high-performance computing systems have scaled in specific cases, but the dynamic nature of modern client and server workloads, coupled with the impossibility of statically optimizing an OS for all workloads and hardware variants pose serious challenges for operating...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Galen Hunt, Andrew Baumann
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Information retrieval and access have become central technologies for managing and leveraging the ongoing explosion of digital content. While effective, current techniques for designing retrieval models are limited by two issues. First, they have restricted representational power, and generally deal with simple settings that estimate the quality of individual results independently of other results. Second, …
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In this talk, I will talk about our recent work on bandwidth allocation problem in two projects: TCP friendliness and P2P streaming. Exploring the design space of TCP-friendly traffic control protocols: While the current definition of TCP friendliness has enabled a wide variety of traffic control protocols other than TCP, it still considerably restricts the design space of TCP friendly traffic control protocols. In this project, we propose a new class of TCP friendliness definitions, called...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jin Li, Lisong Xu
In this talk, I will address the feature dimensionality reduction problem within a unified framework from three aspects: Graph Embeddingand Extensions: A unified framework for general dimensionality reduction In the past decades, a large family of algorithms-supervised or unsupervised; stemming from statistics or geometry theory-has been designed to provide different solutions to the problem of dimensionality reduction. Beyond different motivations of these algorithms, I present a general...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Gang Hua, Shuicheng Yan
The infusion of new information technologies in customer-firm interactions has redefined the roles customers can play in value creation and product innovation. Several companies (e.g. Microsoft, HP, Procter & Gamble, Volvo, Samsung, and Peugot) have established online or virtual product communities, virtual product prototyping and testing centers, and other virtual product forums – which I collectively refer to here as Virtual Customer Environments (VCEs) – to facilitate rich...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Marc Smith, Satish Nambisan
Roughly speaking, a Bergman complex of a matroid is a matroidal analogue of a tropical variety, and a positive Bergman complex of an oriented matroid is an oriented matroid analogue of a positive tropical variety. It turns out that the positive Bergman complex of an oriented matroid has a nice description in terms of the Las Vergnas face lattice; this implies that the positive Bergman complex is homeomorphic to a sphere. When we consider the Bergman complex and the positive Bergman complex of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Henry Cohn, Lauren K. Williams
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The Internet has achieved great creative success, opening our eyes to radically new communication capabilities and distributed control opportunities. Yet for all the critical and commercial success of the past twenty years, we remain essentially unable to quantify or trace the actions of services and devices on the network. The Internet is a maelstrom of packets and protocols, an infrastructure built to speed it all along to quick completion, but constructed without detailed measures, without...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Victor Bahl, Mark Poepping, Chas DiFatta
I will give an overview of my research and present a 5-year research program focusing on activity awareness and knowledge sharing in computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). I will first present two studies on activity awareness with pairs performing a collaborative editing project and then two studies with teams performing an emergency management planning task on maps. Many failures in CSCW systems are attributed to inadequate support for the collaborators’ awareness. In the studies of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kori Quinn (Inkpen), Gregorio Convertino
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With the widespread adoption of broadband residential access, live video streaming may be the next disruptive IP communication technology. As an indication of the potential of live video streaming, recently a commercial P2P streaming system broadcasted the 2006 Chinese New Year’s celebration to over 200,000 users, generating an aggregate bit rate in the vicinity of 100 gigabits/sec. CoolStreaming, PPlive, and ppstream are among the most successful deployments, all of which use pull-driven...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jin Li (MICROSOFT RESEARCH), Keith Ross
Microsoft Research Audio
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Moore's Law and the wave of technologies it enabled have led to tremendous improvements in productivity and the quality of life in the First World. Yet, technology has had almost no effect on the four billion people that make less than a dollar per day. In this talk I argue that decreasing costs of computing and wireless networking make this the right time to spread the benefits of technology, and that the biggest missing piece is a lack of focus on the problems that matter. After covering some...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Feng Zhao, Eric Brewer
Context-free languages combine expressiveness with polynomial parsing, making them very appealing for practical applications. In fact, they are possibly the most widely used class of languages in Computer Science. Thus, models of computation which slightly extend context-free models, without losing parsing efficiency, seem to have great potential for applications in fields such as Programming Languages, Formal Verification, Computational Linguistics, and Computational Biology, and are therefore...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Yuri Gurevich, Tamar Aizikowitz
How do you make sure you can see and understand the critical social processes of your customers-both the millions who have adapted to the emerging social age and the millions who haven't yet made this change? The way in which you and others understand and automate our social processes will shape human beings for centuries: not just your children or your grandchildren but whole societies. Each social age automates the prior age: during the Agricultural Revolution with farming, we 'automated'...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Tamara Pesik, Mary Ann Allison
A surge of recent research in machine learning and statistics has developed new techniques for finding patterns of words in document collections using hierarchical probabilistic models. These models are called 'topic models' because the word patterns often reflect the underlying topics that are combined to form the documents; however topic models also naturally apply to such data as images and biological sequences. After reviewing the basics of topic modeling, I will describe two related lines...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, David Heckerman, David Blei
Microsoft Research Audio
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Concurrency in user applications is on the rise. Modern computers have multiple hardware threads per processor and multiple processors per chip, each of which may switch to a different software thread many times per second. Applications of the future will be heavily multithreaded. My research aims to make such programs easier to write and more resilient to the performance programs historically caused by preemption. After surveying work in several areas (including preemption-tolerant locks and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jim Larus, William N. Scherer III